• Past, present and future: Fifty years of anthropology in Sudan 

      Assal, Munzoul A. M.; Abdul-Jalil, Musa Adam (Book, 2015-03-01)
      This book is about the history of anthropology in Sudan. Contributors to the book represent different generations of anthropologists who at some point in time either taught at the department in Khartoum or had some sort ...
    • Pastoral Women in Town: The Case of the Migrant Fulbe in Sinja, Sudan 

      Osman, Elhadi Ibrahim (Sudan Working Paper SWP 2020:3, Working paper, 2020-11-01)
      The world has witnessed rapid urbanization and an increased number of women migrating in a phenomenon known as the femininization of migration. Urban areas are becoming extremely overcrowded and overburdened, putting ...
    • Pastoralists in the Horn of Africa: The Continued Threat of Famine 

      Helland, Johan (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 2000)
      This paper discusses the current food security crisis in the pastoral areas of the Horn of Africa. It tries to explain the recurrent famines with reference to same important features of pastoralism as a production system, ...
    • Patriarchy, Politics and Women’s Activism in Post-Revolution Sudan 

      Tønnessen, Liv; al-Nagar, Samia (Report, 2020-07-01)
      While Sudanese women were at the forefront of the popular uprising under the banner "freedom, peace and justice" that started in December 2018 and eventually led to the ousting of President Omar al-Bashir in April 2019, ...
    • Patterns of foreign direct investment in poor countries 

      Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 2000)
      This paper introduces endogenous adoption costs for productive assets in a Ramsey type growth model with international capital flows. There are two classes of productive assets: owner-specific and location-specific. Adoption ...
    • Pawns of peace. Evaluation of Norwegian peace efforts in Sri Lanka, 1997-2009 

      Sørbø, Gunnar M.; Goodhand, Jonathan; Klem, Bart; Nissen, Ada Elisabeth; Selbervik, Hilde (Evaluation report no. 5/2011, Research report, 2011-11-01)
      This evaluation assesses Norway’s peace efforts in Sri Lanka from 1997 to 2009. It tells the story of Norway’s engagement, assesses the effects and identifies broader implications and lessons. The analysis is ...
    • Pay for Honesty? Lessons on Wages and Corruption from Public Hospitals 

      Savedoff, William D. (U4 Brief 2008:13, Report, 2008-05-02)
      Theft, graft, absenteeism and soliciting bribes in the health sector in developing countries is often blamed on low pay. But does low pay actually explain corruption? Several studies of public hospitals in Latin America ...
    • Peace Processes and Statebuilding: Economic and Institutional Provisions of Peace Agreements 

      Suhrke, Astri; Wimpelmann, Torunn; Dawes, Marcia (Research report, 2007-06-26)
      This report originates in the growing international engagement in statebuilding and postconflict reconstruction during the past decade. The 2005 Paris declaration of the OECD referred to an emerging international consensus ...
    • Peace without Unity: The Dilemma of Reconciling Divergent Perspectives in Post-Conflict Sudan 

      El-Battahani, Atta (Sudan Working Paper SWP 2008: 4, Working paper, 2008-02-20)
      Maintaining and promoting conflict-ridden Sudan as a unified entity has emerged as a central plank in the agenda of most, if not all, parties to the ongoing political conflict since the 1950s. Indeed, each of the major ...
    • Peacebuilding in post-war situations: Lessons for Sudan 

      Sørbø, Gunnar M. (Research report, Research report, 2004)
      This report examines lessons from peacebuilding efforts during the last decade or so that are relevant to the current challenges in Sudan. While there is an emphasis on governance interventions, it is argued more generally ...
    • Peacebuilding: Lessons for Afghanistan 

      Suhrke, Astri; Harpviken, Kristian Berg; Knudsen, Are; Ofstad, Arve; Strand, Arne (Research report, Research report, 2002)
      This report examines lessons from previous peacebuilding efforts in Afghanistan, and from other countries, in order to highlight issues of central relevance for the present phase of peacebuilding and economic recovery. It ...
    • Peacemaking, Customary Laws and Institutions in Dārfūr 

      Ali, Osman Mohamed Osman; Takana, Yousif Suliman Saeed (Sudan Working Paper SWP 2016:6, Working paper, 2016-10-01)
      The traditional native justice system in Darfur has an advantage over the modern state judicial one; it has proved its relevance for effectively managing and resolving conflicts, particularly in the rural communities, ...
    • Peoples' views of taxation in Africa: A review of research on determinants of tax compliance 

      Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Schulz-Herzenberg, Collette; Sjursen, Ingrid Hoem (CMI Working Paper WP 2012:7, Working paper, 2012-10-10)
      What are the key determinants of taxpayer compliance? And which features of citizen-state relations govern attitudes and behaviour regarding taxation? This paper examines the analytical foundation, methodological approaches ...
    • Per diem policy analysis toolkit 

      Vian, Taryn; Sabin, Laura (U4 Issue 2012:8, Research report, 2012-12-18)
      Most organizations use per diems as a way to reimburse out-of-pocket expenses for travel and to encourage staff to attend professional development activities. However, weaknesses in policy design and control of spending ...
    • Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: Evidence and implications 

      Vian, Taryn; Miller, Candace; Themba, Zione; Bukuluki, Paul (U4 Issue 2011:6, Research report, 2011-07-01)
      This study details the perceived benefits, problems, and risks of abuse of per diems and allowances in developing countries. Drawing on 41 interviews with government and nongovernmental officials in Malawi and Uganda the ...
    • Perpetual Hardships: Female Poverty in Rural Malanje, Angola 

      Strønen, Iselin Åsedotter; Silva, Osvaldo; Nangacovie, Margaret; Fortuna, Cláudio (CMI Brief vol. 16 no. 4, Report, 2017-04-01)
      Rural poverty in Angola is severe and gendered. This brief draws on qualitative field research in ten rural communities in the municipality of Kalandula, Malanje province. It shows that female poverty is characterized by ...
    • Petite corruption et situations de pluralisme normatif au Burundi 

      Nicaise, Guillaume (Afrique Contemporaine vol. 2018/02 no. 266, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018-01-01)
      Cet article restitue et analyse les pratiques des percepteurs d’impôt et des élus locaux au Burundi. Pour mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de l’État au niveau local, les observations ...
    • Petite mais néfaste : La corruption dans le financement et les droits d'exploitation des systèmes d'approvisionnement en eau 

      Butterworth, John; de la Harpe, Jean (U4 Brief 2011:3, Report, 2011-04-15)
      Le « commerce » de l’eau réunit un grand nombre de consommateurs, qui utilisent cette denrée à différentes fins, notamment domestiques, industrielles et agricoles. La gestion de l’eau à l’échelle des usagers, et la collecte ...
    • Petro-Governance in Tanzania: Opportunities and Challenges 

      Lee, Bryan; Dupuy, Kendra (CMI Brief vol. 15 no. 14, Report, 2016-10-01)
      Recent significant natural gas discoveries have pushed Tanzania into the international spotlight as a new petroleum producer. How can the country ensure that its newfound wealth is translated into economic development? ...
    • Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better 

      Torvik, Ragnar (CMI Brief vol. 15 no. 10, Report, 2016-07-01)
      The Government of Tanzania is looking for the best policies and institutional designs to turn future petroleum revenues into welfare, development and jobs. This Brief argues that the Tanzanian society will benefit more by ...