Now showing items 1265-1284 of 1677

    • Seroprevalence and associated factors of maternal cytomegalovirus in Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study 

      Zenebe, Mengistu Hailemariam; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Loha, Eskindir; Padalko, Elizaveta (BMJ Open vol. 11 no. 10, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021-10-01)
      Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The ...
    • Servants of the nation, defenders of la patria: The Bolivarian Militia in Venezuela 

      Strønen, Iselin Åsedotter (CMI Working Paper WP 2015:13, Working paper, 2015-01-01)
      In 2008, the government of now-deceased President Hugo Chávez in Venezuela passed a law creating what is known as the Bolivarian militia (Milicia Bolivariana), a reserve force composed by civilian volunteers supplementing ...
    • Service delivery indicators: Pilot in education and health care in Africa 

      Bold, Tessa; Svensson, Jakob; Gauthier, Bernard; Mæstad, Ottar; Wane, Waly (CMI Report R 2011:8, Research report, 2011-11-30)
      The Service Delivery Indicators (“the Indicators”) provide a set of metrics for benchmarking service delivery performance in education and health in Africa to track progress across and within countries over time. The ...
    • Setting a Standard for Africa? Lessons from the 1991 Zambian Elections 

      Andreassen, Bård-Anders; Geisler, Gisela; Tostensen, Arne (Research report, Research report, 1992)
      This report provides an assessment of the transition to a multi-party system of government in Zambia. The first section gives a general background to processes of democratisation in Africa, while the subsequent ones deal ...
    • Sexual and reproductive rights - a global legal battlefield 

      Gianella, Camila; Gloppen, Siri; Sieder, Rachel; Yamin, Alicia (CMI Brief vol. 12 no. 1, Report, 2013-04-01)
      Millennium Development Goal number 5 (MDG 5) aims to reduce maternal mortality. In this brief we argue that, in the current global context more rigorous research focusing on the legal battles around women’s sexual and ...
    • Sexual violence and state violence against women in Egypt, 2011-2014 

      McRobie, Heather (CMI Insight 2014:7, Report, 2014-09-04)
      Egyptian women were crucial to the movement that overthrew Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak in the 2011 revolution. However, both in the revolutionary and post-revolutionary period women have also become targets of sexual ...
    • Shadow Value Chains: Tracing the link between corruption, illicit activity and lootable natural resources from West Africa 

      Østensen, Åse Gilje; Stridsman, Mats (U4 Issue 2017:7, Research report, 2017-06-01)
      Illicit natural resource trade continues to benefit corrupt officials, criminal and terrorist networks and to divert resources away from development, security and the common good in West Africa. How are Liberian timber, ...
    • Shady traffic: Part three: Review of the portefolio supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on combating trafficking in human beings 

      Halvorsen, Kate; Stokke, Hugo (Norad report 2c/2009, Research report, 2009-02-05)
      As a response to the growing international and national focus on combating human trafficking, Norway developed its first action plan on trafficking for the period 2003-2005, succeeded by another one to cover the period of ...
    • Shaping the tax agenda: Public engagement, lobbying and tax reform in Tanzania 

      Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Ngowi, Prosper; Rakner, Lise (CMI Brief vol. 14 no. 5, Report, 2015-07-01)
      Tax reforms are no longer the exclusive domain of the International Monetary Fund, external experts, and the Ministry of Finance. Increasingly, interest groups across Africa shape the tax agenda. Business associations and ...
    • Share-tenancy within the household unit 

      Bøe, Turid (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 1997)
      Virtually all peasant household models assume efficient allocation of household productive resources between different household activities. In an African context characterised by different plots of land being cultivated ...
    • Shatila: The island of (in)stability 

      Haveland, Bjørnar Skaar (Journal article, 2021-02-01)
      The Shatila refugee camp was established in 1949 for Palestinian refugees fleeing Palestine during the Nakba. The camp is located in Beirut next to the Sabra neighbourhood (of the Gaza buildings discussed in the foregoing ...
    • Shifting Cultivation and "Deforestation". A Study from Sumatra, Indonesia 

      Angelsen, Arild (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 1994)
      About half of tropical deforestation is commonly explained by the expansion of traditional agriculture (shifting cultivation). This article first questions the share of responsibly assigned to traditional agriculture. ...
    • Shifting Cultivation Expansion and Intensity of Production: The Open Economy Case 

      Angelsen, Arild (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 1994)
      This paper studies decision making in shifting cultivation, in particular labour inputs, length of rotation or fallow period (intensity of production), and the agricultural frontier (expansion). Analytical models are ...
    • Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support? 

      Kolstad, Ivar (CMI Brief, Report, 2005-01-01)
      Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is ...
    • Should Tanzania establish a sovereign wealth fund? 

      Torvik, Ragnar (CMI Working Paper WP 2016:5, Working paper, 2016-07-01)
      Abstract Many natural resource abundant countries have established sovereign wealth funds as part of their strategy of managing the resource wealth. The paper looks into different arguments used as reasons to establish ...
    • Shrinking oil: Does weak governance and corruption reduce volumes of oil produced? 

      Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled (U4 Issue 2010:3, Research report, 2010-06-18)
      Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest that weak governance and corruption are key factors behind continued poverty in resource-rich countries. How poor governance and corruption influence revenue ...
    • Sistema "parlamentar-presidencial" ou presidencialismo extremo? 

      Pestana, Nelson (Angola Brief vol. 1 no. 16, Report, 2011-06-05)
      A nova Constituição angolana (Fevereiro 2010) consagrou um sistema de governo auto-designado “Parlamentar-Presidencial”. Esta qualificação sugere a existência de equilíbrio entre os dois órgãos de soberania que não é ...
    • Sitting on the Fence: Conflicts of Interest and How to Regulate Them 

      Reed, Quentin (U4 Issue 2008:6, Research report, 2008-11-01)
      This paper describes the problem of conflict of interest of public officials and the main ways in which it may be tackled, with particular focus on regulation of elected officials. The paper describes three main types of ...
    • Skatt og statsbygging i utviklingsland: Hvordan skatt kan bidra til å ansvarliggjøre myndighetene overfor egne borgere 

      Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge (Journal article, 2011-05-02)
      Den politiske betydningen av skattlegging går langt ut over det å skaffe inntekter til å finansiere offentlig sektor, infrastruktur og grunnleggende behov for borgerne. I denne artikkelen argumenterer Odd-Helge Fjeldstad ...
    • Skatteunndragelse. En studie av kommunebeskatning i Tanzania 

      Hansen, Cecilie Fosse (CMI Working paper, Working paper, 1998)
      I dette notatet gis en oversikt over økonomisk teori om skatteunndragelse. Relevansen av ulike teoretiske tilnærminger i en u-landskontekst, drøftes. Deretter analyseres hvilke variabler som kan bidra til å forklare den ...