Always top-down: Constitutional reforms in Angola
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Original versionBergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper 2021:09) 12 p.
Angola amended its constitution yet again in 2021. In official statements, it was done to “strengthen the democratic principles of rule of law and of separation of powers”, but this paper demonstrates that the opposite was achieved. In a process that was again top-own, with little or no participation of citizens or civil society and strongly criticised by the opposition, the effect was a reinforcement of the ruling party’s dominant position and a further strengthening of the already omnipotent presidency.