Review of and recommendations for Norwegian support to good governance in Pakistan
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Original versionOslo: Norad (Norad Report Discussion no. 12/2011) 84 p.
The report introduces a theoretical framework for analysis, and then discusses how Pakistan and Norway define governance and good governance before moving on to a political economy analysis of Pakistan, complemented by an overview of governance history and structures. A particular challenge the report identify is the weak social contract that exists between the state and the population of Pakistan. Rather than the state being a foundation for division of power between the state and the citizens many regard it as a playground for the different power elites, i.e. the political elite closely associated with the feudal landowning class, the military and the bureaucracy, as a means to secure their personal wealth and control. Pakistan is facing a grave situation on a number of fronts. In addition to an increasingly difficult economic situation there are large geographical differences, demands for greater independence in some areas, and a recurring struggle for power between the three centres of power, all draining the country’s resources. Population growth is estimated to have been 24 % over the past ten years. At the same time, 51 % of the population is living under the poverty line. Almost 60 % of the population is below the age of 30, and there are rising rates of unemployment and underemployment. Moreover, shortages in energy have become acute, where the public and industry both lack electricity and gas supplies. Additional problems are brought about by a series of natural disasters. Government of Pakistan holds the main responsibility for securing a more positive developmental outcome for the country’s citizens. The 18th Constitutional Amendment that was introduced in 2010 devolves authority from the federal to the provincial governments. With more responsibility shifted to the provinces, more attention has to be given to the ability to govern at the provincial level. Little is known about how the gains for local democracy should be followed up